Inclusión escolar: percepción y conciencia de ello

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Inclusión escolar: percepción y conciencia de ello

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Título: Inclusión escolar: percepción y conciencia de ello
Autor: Blunda, Rosalía
Resumen: El interés por este tema nace de la experiencia de muchos años vivida como maestra de apoyo de la escuela primaria. Hoy en día, se habla mucho de la inclusión, desafortunadamente no siempre la declaración de los valores inclusivos conlleva a la realización de los mismos a través de un proyecto organizativo y funcional. Como supuesto previo a nuestro trabajo, asumimos el pensamiento de Fabio Dovigo (2016) según el cual la inclusión es un proceso inagotable que implica el descubrimiento gradual y la eliminación de los límites de aprendizaje y participación (Dovigo, 2016, p.75) y de Ianes, quien afirma que una escuela que quiere avanzar hacia una mayor inclusión, debe partir de una base de igualdad (todos somos iguales en la escuela (...), aceptando en la escuela de todos a cada estudiante, independientemente de su condición y de su "funcionalidad" en un sentido amplio (Ianes, 2015, p.13). En la preparación del marco teórico, se recorrieron las etapas que han marcado la evolución del proceso de integración en la realidad de la escuela italiana de los diferentes términos en uso según el periodo histórico, los cuales van de la inserción, integración, a la inclusión, teniendo también presente la Convención ONU y las diferentes Clasificaciones Internacionales dadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Además, hemos dado particular atención a los diferentes puntos de vista e interpretaciones del concepto de inclusión que en los años han enriquecido su significado. En cuanto a la parte empírica, la investigación, realizada en Sicilia, en la ciudad de Trapani, ha querido resaltar cómo el proceso de inclusión es percibido por los docentes de la ciudad y en qué modo esta percepción es actuada de acuerdo a las prácticas organizativas y operativas según las tres Dimensiones del “Nuevo Index para la Inclusion”. El target de la investigación fue identificado entre los docentes de algunas escuelas de los cuatro niveles educativos, como son: educación infantil, primaria, secundaria y bachillerato. Como instrumento de investigación se utilizó un cuestionario, compuesto de una ficha socio-demográfica y del cuestionario “Nuevo Index para la Inclusión”, extraído de la edición italiana a cura de Fabio Dovigo del “Nuovo Index for Inclusion” de T. Booth y M. Ainscow (2016); el cuestionario consta de respuestas cerradas y, como escala de medida para las tres Dimensiones, utiliza la escala Likerta cinco puntos, en la cual el valor más bajo expresa mayor positividad a las afirmaciones de los indicadores.The interest for this topic arises from my 10-years experience as special aid teacher in a primary school. Today there is much talk about inclusion but unfortunately not always the claims of inclusive values lead to their realizations with organizational and operational practices. As an prerequisite to our work, we can assume the Fabio Dovigo optics (2016), according to which the inclusion is an inexhaustible process that involves the gradual discovery and the removal of learning and participation limits (Dovigo, 2016, p.75)and the Ianes ones, that a school that wants to move towards greater inclusiveness, starts from a basis of equality (we are all equal before the / at school (...), by welcoming everyone in the school of each student, regardless of his condition and by his "operating" in a global sense (Ianes, 2015, p.13). In preparing the theoretical mark, we have retraced the steps that have led to the evolution of the integration process in the Italian school situation in different terms, which represent historical periods, that move from insertion, integration, inclusion, even through the UN Convention,to the various classifications of International World Health Organization. We also focus on the different perspectives and interpretations of the concept of inclusion that over the years has expanded its meaning. Regarding the empirical part, this investigation, carried out in Sicily in the municipality of Trapani, wanted to highlight how the inclusion process is perceived by the teachers of the municipality and as an awareness is found in the organizational and operational practices according to the three Dimensions of "New Index for Inclusion". The search target has been identified among the teachers of some schools in the four degrees of education: kindergarten, primary school, secondary school level I and level II.As survey instrument we used a questionnaire which is made up of a socio-registry card and of a questionnaire "New Index for Inclusion", extrapolated by the Italian edition by Fabio Dovigo of the "New Index for Inclusion", by T. Booth and M. Ainscow (2016) with closed responses that, as a measuring scale for all three Dimensions, uses the Likert five-point scale, where the lowest values express greater positivity to the assertions of the indicators. The administration of the questionnaires was carried out in the months between September 2016 and December 2016. The statistical analysis of data was processed with the statistical program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), version 20 in Italian. It proceeded, at first, from the descriptive statistical calculations and found a female predominance of 86.6% compared to the male population that is 13.4%, in line with national trends. Subsequently, a comparison of the three dimensions can be seen more positive in "Creating inclusivecultures” (Size A) (mean lower response), compared to the "Creating inclusive policies" (Size B) and even less in the "Developing inclusive practices" (Size C). Among the most representative indicators, expressed in terms of increased positivity, in the opinion of teachers emerges a friendly school that encourages and promotes respect for human rightsin which everyone is welcomeand a general sharing in facilitating the acceptance of all new pupils and especially in countering bullying, reflecting a culture based on mutual respect to foster learning by all students. From a detailed examination of how the socio-demographic variables have influenced the average response, with the t-statistic of the Table t-test for independent samples and with the F statistic of “Anova univariate” analysis, we found a significant difference of the averages between the two sexes and also among the four grades of school in which teachers work, so that the resulting schools who have expressed greater positivity towards the school inclusivity are the primary and kindergarten (averages of lowest response) in comparison with the secondary school, where the minor inclusiveness, observed mainly in the secondary school level II, was influenced by the increased presence of male teachers that, with averages of the highest response in each of the three dimensions, expressed less positivity towards inclusive statements, showing lower perception of inclusive values and therefore the awareness of actions.The overall analysis of the indicators shows an image of teachers who have a good perception in creating inclusive communities but in the awareness of the shares in the organizational and teaching practices, they are affected by the distance between affirmations and inclusive achievements, probably because still far from inclusive planning.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10662/6490
Fecha: 2017-11-08


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