A quantitative analysis of cold water for human consumption in hospitals in Spain

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A quantitative analysis of cold water for human consumption in hospitals in Spain

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Title: A quantitative analysis of cold water for human consumption in hospitals in Spain
Author: González González, Alfonso; García Sanz-Calcedo, Justo; Rodríguez Salgado, David; Mena Nieto, Ángel Isidro
Abstract: Una estimación del agua utilizada para el consumo humano en los hospitales es esencial para determinar posibles ahorros y para fijar criterios para mejorar el diseño de nuevos modelos de consumo de agua. El presente trabajo informa sobre agua fría para consumo humano (CWHC) en hospitales en España y determina los posibles ahorros. En el período 2005-2012, se analizaron 80 esquemas de gestión y auditoría medioambientales (EMAS) de 20 hospitales. Los resultados concluyen que el consumo promedio anual de CWHC es 1.59m3 / m2 (con una desviación estándar de 0.48m3 / m2), 195.85m3 / cama (desviación estándar 70.07m3 / cama), o 53.69m3 / trabajador (desviación estándar 16.64m3 / trabajador). Los resultados demuestran la posibilidad de ahorrar 5,600,000m3 de agua por año. Suponiendo que el costo del agua es de aproximadamente 1.22 € / m3, los ahorros anuales se estiman en 6,832,000 €. Además, se podrían ahorrar 2,912MWh de energía y evitar la emisión de 22,400 toneladas anuales de CO2 a la atmósfera.An estimation of the water used for human consumption in hospitals is essential to determine possible savings and to fix criteria to improve the design of new water consumption models.The present work reports on cold water for human consumption (CWHC)in hospitals in Spain and determines the possible savings. In the period of 2005–2012, 80 Eco-Management and Audit Schemes (EMAS) from20 hospitals were analysed. The results conclude that the average annual consumption of CWHC is 1.59m3/m2 (with a standard deviation of 0.48m3/m2), 195.85m3/bed (standard deviation 70.07m3/bed), or 53.69m3/worker (standard deviation 16.64m3/worker).The results demonstrate the possibility of saving 5,600,000m3 of water per year. Assuming the cost of water as approximately 1.22 €/m3, annual savings are estimated as 6,832,000 €. Furthermore, 2,912MWh of energy could be saved, and the emission of 22,400 annual tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere could be avoided.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10662/8153
Date: 2016


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