Anatomía comparada del Suborden Odontoceti

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Anatomía comparada del Suborden Odontoceti

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Title: Anatomía comparada del Suborden Odontoceti
Author: Martín Díaz, Noelia
Abstract: La vida acuática ha dirigido la evolución de los odontocetos generando animales con grandes diferencias con respecto a los animales terrestres o aéreos. De esta forma, han adquirido una un gran tamaño corporal y sistemas sofisticados de vasos sanguíneos para poder mantener la temperatura corporal; han desarrollado aletas, una forma ahusada y musculatura especializada en la locomoción en el medio acuático; sus sentidos se han adaptado al medio acuático, a veces comprometiendo estructuras óseas, y han desarrollado el sistema de ecolocalización; han modificado el aparato locomotor pasivo para conseguir la estabilización necesaria en el agua; el aparato respiratorio se ha adaptado a los grandes tiempo de sumersión y a las altas presiones a que es sometido; el aparato urinario ha sufrido modificaciones para poder mantener concentraciones electrolíticas viables; el aparato digestivo se ha especializado para poder adquirir alimentos dentro del agua; y finalmente, el aparato reproductor, tanto masculino, como femenino, también ha sufrido alteraciones, que mantienen la forma ahusada del cuerpo de los odontocetos, y que evita la entrada de agua útero.Aquatic life has directed the evolution of odontocetes, generating animals with great differences with respect to terrestrial or aerial animals. In this way, they have acquired a large body size and sophisticated blood vessel systems to maintain the body temperature; have developed fins, a tapered shape and musculature specialized in locomotion in the aquatic environment. Their senses have adapted to the aquatic environment, sometimes compromising bony structures, and have developed the echolocation system. The passive locomotor apparatus has been modified to achieve the necessary stabilization in water. The respiratory system has adapted to the long time of submersion and the high pressures they suffer. The urinary system has undergone modifications in order to maintain viable electrolyte concentrations. The digestive system has specialized to acquire food in water; and finally, the reproductive system, both male and female, has also undergone alterations, which maintain the tapered shape of the body of the odontocetes, and which prevent the entry of water into the uterus.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10662/8526
Date: 2019-01-17


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