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Title: Deciphering Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum mode of action against Penicillium nordicum in a dry-cured ham model system
Authors: Cebrián Cabezón, Eva
Roncero Benavente, Elía
Delgado Perón, Josué
Núñez Breña, Félix
Rodríguez Serrano, Mar
Keywords: Ocratoxina A Biocontrol;Jamón curado en seco;Patrón de utilización del carbono;Competitividad Proteómica;Ochratoxin A Biocontrol;Dry-cured ham;Carbon utilisation pattern;Competitiveness Proteomics
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Abstract: Penicillium nordicum is one of the major producers of ochratoxin A (OTA) in dry-cured ham. Staphylococcus xylosus Sx8 and Staphylococcus equorum Se31 have been previously proposed as biocontrol agents (BCAs) to prevent the OTA contamination, although their antifungal mode of action has not been established yet. Thus, the aim of this work was to elucidate their mode of action against P. nordicum in a dry-cured ham model system. For this, the effect of live cells, dead cells, and cell-free broth; the nutritional utilisation pattern, niche overlap index (NOI), interactions by dual-culture assays, antifungal effect of volatile compounds, OTA detoxification, and effect on fungal proteome were determined. No fungal growth was observed after 14 days of co-culture with live cells of each staphylococcus at 15 or 20 ◦C. However, such inhibition was not observed with either dead cells or extracellular extracts. The number of carbon sources utilised by P. nordicum was higher than those used by both cocci at 20 ◦C, whilst the opposite occurred at 15 ◦C. According to NOI, nutritional dominance depends on temperature, at 20 ◦C P. nordicum dominated the niche, but at 15 ◦C the mould is dominated by the BCAs. The volatile pattern generated by each coccus did not show antifungal effect, and both staphylococci failed to degrade or adsorb OTA. However, in the interaction assay, S. xylosus and S. equorum were able to decrease the fungal growth and its OTA production. In addition, proteomic analyses showed changes in the abundance of proteins related to the cell wall integrity (CWI), carbohydrate metabolism and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as OTA. In conclusion, overall, the antagonistic effects of the two studied cocci against P. nordicum are greater at 15 ◦C than at 20 ◦C, being linked to competition for space and nutrients, ,triggering alterations in CWI pathway, OTA biosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2023.110342
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